Despite the fact that we use these terms interchangeably, herbs and spices are very different things. You might have called them seasoning thinking they are the same, but it is not. This will also affect how you should use them in the kitchen. Well, you are not alone, and this article will help you out.
Hence, what are the differences between herbs and spices? Despite herbs and spices are both edible and coming from a plant, they differ for:
- Part of the plant from which they come from: flowers, stem or root
- Climate of origin: temperate or tropical
- Flavor strength: one is way milder than the other
- Uses: spices are generally not eaten raw
- Shelf life: the water content might be different
Let’s try to understand such differences and how these affect their use in the kitchen. Are you growing herbs or spices at home? Well, let’ see
There are only five differences between herbs and spices that only experts know. Ready for such insights?
Herbs and spices both come from different plants.
Herbs come from the leaves of non-woody or herbaceous plants. Great examples are the green foliage of Basil, Parsley, Rosemary, Thyme, and Oregano. Also, the word herb is used for the entire plant (and nothing wrong with that).
Spices are produced from the roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, or bark of a plant. Pepper is one of the most common spices with cinnamon bark, ginger root, and cumin seeds. Vanilla? Well, it is a spice coming from the not fully developed fruit of a specific orchid (yes orchid have fruit), as mentioned in this study.
In general, spices and herbs come from different plants except for a few exceptions. One of the exceptions is the plant called Coriandrum sativum. This plant can be used to produce a herb from its leaves (called cilantro) and a spice from the rest of it (called coriander).
Herbs and spices come from different plants that (for the majority) also grow in different environments. The temperature is indeed a key factor.
Herbs are mostly native from areas with temperate climates. Think about all the Mediterranean herbs (from Italy, France), as stated by the Iowa State University. This is also a reason why cuisines from these areas use parsley, sage, and rosemary extensively.
Spices are native to the warmer areas of the planet. Think about India, South East Asia, and South America. Therefore it is understandable that these regions are known for their ‘spicy’ foods.
Herbs are certainly milder in flavor than spices and can be used in generous amounts. For example, the famous pesto is largely done with basil with the addition of nuts, oil, salt, and pepper. The best garnish for pasta, especially when you do your own as in the video below (one of my favorite YouTuber in the cooking space).
Spices, on the other hand, have a much stronger and sometimes more pungent flavor, as you might have experienced in your kitchen. Use them moderation, and with specific measures and ratios for best effect. If you have ever had a meal with too much pepper, you understand the art of balance when it comes to spices!
Herbs and spices can also be used for other more curious (still food-related) applications such as coloring and food preservatives.
Colouring: spices can also be used for food coloring. Think about the famous Italian “risotto alla Milanese”. The yellow color comes from saffron. Check the most renowned chef recipe here.
In the worldwide famous Spanish dish called “paella,” its yellow comes from saffron and (depends on the recipe variation) from the spice called turmeric. Have you ever tried an orange-red chicken with a fantastic taste? Will probably its color come from paprika as you can check in the great recipe below (a bit complicated but worth it!)
Preservation: abilities of spices has been known for centuries, with civilizations using cinnamon, cloves, mustard, allspice, nutmeg, and pepper to delay the rot of fruits, vegetables, and meats. As this study from the University of Vienna states, spices are able to delay and spoilage food, keeping your food fresh for longer.
Spices can aﬀect both food spoilage microorganisms (food preservation) and human pathogens (food safety) due to the antimicrobial and antifungal activity of their natural constituents.University of Vienna
Spices are very likely to last way longer than herbs. Even in case both herbs and spices are in dried form, herbs generally tend to last two years, compared to four years for spices.
While herbs may be dried, they still have a higher moisture content. Water implies a quicker degradation. Many of the preservation qualities of spices help keep them usable for much longer in your kitchen.
What Spices and Herbs Have in Common?
There are four critical similarities between herbs and spices.
First, They are both used for adding flavor to food. The interesting point is that when they are used together, they are known as ‘seasoning.’ My favorite seasoning (Italian, myself) is made with the herbs of parsley, basil, rosemary, oregano, pepper (spices), and some garlic. On the other hand, the famous Mexican taco seasoning is made from the herbs of sage and oregano, and the spices of cumin, chili, paprika. Fancy some taco, check the video below.
Second, herbs and spices can be dried to extend their useful life. This is quite a common solution when you have lots of fresh herbs harvested from your indoor garden that you do not want to waste. Here a guide to basil preservation
Third, herbs and spices have medicinal and therapeutic properties. For example, many of the spices coming from seeds, as black pepper, are known for their gastroprotective properties, as discussed in this study.
- Cloves can help in relieving toothaches pains, and ginger might reduce inflammation and pain, as mentioned in this study.
- Basil has the potential benefit of relieving stress and helps in facing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and kidney problems, as discussed in this study.
- Lavender is known to help with relaxation, and Marigold is a well-known skin remedy.
- Rosemary is also mentioned in the herb world for its antioxidants and digestive properties (here for more). The list goes on and on!
Is it an Herb or Spice? The List
Here is a list of herbs and spices that you may like to experiment with.
|Herb||Spice - plant part|
|Sage||Ginger - root|
|Oregano||Cloves - flower bud|
|Parsley||Saffron - Stigma|
|Marjoram||Nutmeg - seed|
|Basil||Vanilla - fruit|
|Chives||Cumin - seed|
|Rosemary||Turmeric - root|
|Mint||Mace - seed|
|Bay Leaf||Dill - seed|
|Fennel||Pepper - fruit|
To note that mace is also a spice derived from the outer layer of the nutmeg seed. This edible part of the plant is well known for having a higher concentration of essential oils. This gives mace a more intense and yet refined flavor than nutmeg. Also, the lower amount produced per nutmeg plant justifies its higher price.
Herb, Spice, Condiment, or Seasoning?
Look, I sometimes get confused between seasoning and condiment. That’s why I dug on it, checking with some expert gardeners and reading a few chef expert opinions.
What is a condiment?
Any herb, spice or mixed, it is used after the meal has been prepared, it is called a condiment. If not, you can just call it herb, spice or seasoning. Let’s consider my favorite herb, basil, for instance. If its leaves are used in preparing a dish (pesto, for example), then it is a herb. However, if its leaves are sprinkled on the top (pizza, for instance) to add an extra flavor, then it becomes a condiment.
Condiments are also a mix of several different ingredients (usually including some herbs or spices) to form a sauce, chutney, mustard, or ketchup. For example, mustard usually includes turmeric, and mint is used to make a sauce to accompany roast lamb or peas.
What is seasoning?
Seasonings are a combination of herbs and spices. These are added before preparation to enhance the flavor during cooking. For example, think about rosemary or thyme added to a stake or Mei Yen, which is used to season vegetables before cooking in oriental recipes.
These Are Not Spice
Talking with some of my friends, I realized that avocado or garlic for them were herbs! Well, although a bit strange many get confused with some of them. So let’s check them out.
Is it a spice?
It is not a spice because
Curry is actually a blend of spices, including cumin, chili, and turmeric powders. There is a plant called ‘Curry,’ but this is actually a herb, and while it has a spicy fragrance, it is too bitter to eat.
Salt is a mineral extracted either from the sea or mined from deposits left from ancient long-dry seas.
Flour is made from uncooked ground cereals and has no flavor on its own
Adobo is a seasoning, a paste made from herbs and spices to marinate meat, chicken, or fish.
While chocolate begins with grinding the seeds of the cocoa tree, other ingredients such as cocoa butter, sugar, and milk are added to make the final chocolate product.
While the mustard seed is a spice used in cooking, the sauce or paste known as mustard is a combination of ingredients and is therefore classified as a condiment.
Kaffir Lime Leaves
Because they are leaves, they are classified as a herb and not a spice.
Garlic grows underground as a bulb, and therefore is a vegetable rather than a spice.
Aloe Vera is a perennial herb.
Herb and Spice With Limited Budget
Some herbs and spices are extremely expensive. Take, for example, saffron, mace, and vanilla pods. They are tasty, no doubt, however, they can get pricey, especially for the top quality (as this great saffron on Amazon).
However, some good news.
There are many other herbs and spices you can use, which are extremely effective and very budget-friendly. Here are some of the staples:
- Rosemary, oregano, and basil: ideal for Mediterranean dishes and great stake. You do not want to buy them? Grow them at home!
- Black pepper: a bag of peppercorns and a grinder will set you up with a bit of heat and both a spice and condiment for months. I prefer the whole peppercorn to grind on the spot rather than the already powdery one as tastier, in my opinion.
- Cumin, coriander, turmeric, chili powder, pepper, and garam masala: these are the way to go If you enjoy Indian dishes. These can be cheaply purchased from supermarkets or even more economically from bulk retailers. The curry mix can also be used with Middle Eastern and Spanish dishes by replacing the Garam Masala with Paprika;
- Cinnamon should always be on hand as it is great for baking projects and mixing with sugar to sprinkle on crepes, pancakes, and french toast.
I am quite passionate about growing herb indoor. I found just fantastic the idea that a small pot on your windowsill can provide you with some fresh leaves for your bruschetta or your favorite Italian dish.
However, fresh herbs require care and attention. Dry herbs sound a very good alternative. Massive shelf life, convenience packaging, and very flavor intense. However, you might compromise on vitamins. Do you also know that dry herb does not taste like fresh, especially basil? For more, check the article below about the differences between fresh and dry herbs!
What are the Tips for Cooking with Herbs? The most important hack when cooking with herbs is that woody herbs (like thyme and rosemary) generally withstand heat way better than non-woody ones such as basil and cilantro. Hence, woody herbs can be on a frying pan with a stake for a good 10 minutes while basil or cilantro are often added at the very end of the dish; otherwise, they might lose flavor or wilt.
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